India is the world’s largest democracy. Despite some success in reducing the birth rate, its population will probably overtake China’s by 2030.


Separated from northern Asia by the Himalaya mountain range, India forms a subcontinent. 

As well as the Himalayas, there are two other main geographical regions, the Indo-Gangetic plain, which lies between the foothills of the Himalayas and the Vindhya Mountains, and the central-southern Deccan plateau. 

The Ghats are smaller mountain ranges located on the east and west coasts.


Varies greatly according to latitude, altitude, and season. 

Most of India has three seasons: hot, wet, and cool.

Summer temperatures in the north can reach 104°F (40°C). 

Monsoon rains normally break in June, petering out in September to October. 

In the cool season, the weather is mainly dry. 

The climate in the warmer south is less variable than in the north.

People & Society:

The majority of Indians are Hindu.

It is a hard task to construct a systematic ethnography of the Indian population. 

As different ethnic groups came to India as invaders and mingled with Indian people, they developed their own civilizations and languages. 

India contains a large variety of human types. 

There are three primary broad ethnological types of mankind in India. 

They are the Caucasians or white type, the Mongolian or yellow type, and the Ethiopean or black type (in the Andamans).


One of Asia’s fastest-growing economies. 

Protectionism has given way to free-market economics. 

Tea, gems, textiles exported. 

High-tech industries, outsourcing center. 

Success of “Bollywood” films. 

Cheap labor. 

Huge market.

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