The east African state of Tanzania was formed in 1964 by the union of Tanganyika and the Zanzibar islands. A third of its area is game reserve or national park.


The mainland is mostly a high plateau lying to the east of the Great Rift Valley. 

Forested coastal plain. 

Highlands in the north and south.


Tropical on the coast and Zanzibar. 

Semiarid on central plateau, semi-temperate in the highlands. 

March–May rains. 

People & Society:

99% of people belong to one of 120 small ethnic Bantu groups. 

Arabs, Asians, and Europeans make up the remaining population. 

Use of Kiswahili as the lingua franca has eliminated ethnic rivalries. 

The majority of Tanzanians are subsistence farmers.


Heavily reliant on agriculture, including forestry and cattle. 

Coffee, cotton, tea, cashew nuts, sisal, and cloves are cash crops. 

Gold, diamonds, and gems are mined. 

Safari and beach tourism. 

Debt relief.

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