Bordered to the south by the Zambezi River, Zambia lies at the heart of southern Africa. In 1991, it made a peaceful transition from single-party rule to multiparty democracy.


A high savanna plateau, broken by mountains in northeast. 

Vegetation mainly trees and scrub.


Tropical, with three seasons: cool and dry, hot and dry, and wet. 

Southwest is prone to drought.

People & Society:

There are more than 70 different ethnic groups, but there are fewer tensions than in many African states. 

Major groups are the Bemba (in the northeast), Tonga (south), Nyanja (east), and Lozi (west). 

There are also thousands of refugees, mostly from the DRC and Angola. 

A National Gender Policy was issued in 2000 to redress inequalities between the sexes. 

The standard of living has fallen in real terms since independence. 

One in seven adults is infected with HIV/AIDS.


Copper: output has risen since 2000, when decades of falling global prices ended. 

New agricultural exports, notably flowers. 

Debt relief. 

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